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Abstracts from the

Journal of Public Transportation

Volume 12, No. 1, 2009 


Actor Roles in the Service Development Process

Patrik Gottfridsson, Karlstad University


The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the different actors participating in the service development process, the roles they play, and the resources they contribute to the process. The public transport system in Sweden is a complex setting in which many actors control a variety of resources. Using the established tripartite network model (actors, activities, and resources), the present study identifies eight groups of actors: (1) the Strategic Creators; (2) the Competing Actors; (3) the Deciding Actors; (4) the Supporting Actors; (5) the Prime Movers; (6) the Suppliers; (7) the Service Performers, and (8) the Users. The primary contribution of this paper is to identify this novel typology of actors in the service development process. The study also proposes a conceptual model of the relationships among these various actors and their functions. Full text (pdf)

Demand Responsive Transport:  A Review of Schemes in England and Wales

Rebecca Laws, Marcus Enoch, Stephen Ison, Loughborough University

Stephen Potter, The Open University


Local-authority-administered Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) schemes are increasingly prevalent in England and Wales, partly as a result of the growth in the availability of government funding.  However, insufficient research has been undertaken into the nature of these schemes and their performance, making it difficult to predict their future role. In this respect, a survey was undertaken to collect data on the background, operation, and performance of DRT schemes in England and Wales.  It found that DRT schemes are often designed in an attempt to tackle social problems caused by poor accessibility and that they took time to become established, to achieve their objectives, and to reach an acceptable performance in terms of subsidy level.  The paper concludes that local-authority-led DRT schemes have a role to play, but that lessons learned from schemes currently in operation must be heeded by those contemplating new scheme development. Full text (pdf)

Pedestrian Environments and Transit Ridership

Sherry Ryan, Ph.D., San Diego State University, Lawrence F. Frank, Ph.D., AICP, ASLA, University of British Columbia


This paper explores how the quality of the pedestrian environment around transit stops relates with transit ridership.  The primary hypothesis tested is that transit trip-making is higher in urban environments that are more conducive to non-motorized travel, given that bus transit systems are most frequently accessed via walking or biking.  A secondary goal is to contribute to an improved understanding of the measurement of the built environment in geographic information systems (GIS).  A composite measure of walkability—incorporating land use mix, density and street patterns—was developed for all transit stops in San Diego’s Metropolitan Transit Systems service area and used as a measure of the built environment.  Findings indicate a small but significant, positive relationship between the walkability of the built environment and transit ridership.  Full text (pdf)

Transit Stops and Stations: Transit Managers’ Perspectives on Evaluating Performance

Michael Smart1, Mark A. Miller1,2, and Brian D. Taylor1
1University of California, Los Angeles
2University of California, Berkeley


Passengers, transit managers, adjacent businesses and residents, and local governments all can have strong, and sometimes conflicting, ideas about what makes a good transit stop or station. This paper examines stops and stations from the transit agency’s perspective; transit managers must consider both the logistical and political factors inherent to transit operations as well as the perspectives of customers they seek to attract and retain. An online survey of U.S. transit systems was administered to estimate magnitudes of managers’ perceived importance of an array of stop/station attributes and objectives to provide a quantitative and objective summary of the collective wisdom of U.S. transit managers. This complements the mostly qualitative and case-study research on this topic. Using a sophisticated nonparametric ranking method, an estimate of the transit agency’s perspective on stops and stations was produced. Respondents clearly believe that safety and security are most important to a good stop/station, followed by ease of transferring and cost-effectiveness. Comfort and aesthetic factors rank much further below these. Full text (pdf)

Calculation of Transit Performance Measures Using Smartcard Data

Martin Trépanier, Catherine Morency, and Bruno Agard, Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal


Smartcard automated fare collection systems (SCAFC) for transit have been considered primarily for their administrative function of controlling access to the service and for revenue management. However, it is likely that data from these systems also can be used to describe both transport supply and demand. This article illustrates the use of smartcard data to estimate various transit performance measures. Combined with well-established evaluation processes, such measures can help operators monitor their networks in greater detail. The performance of the network supply (vehicle-kilometers, vehicle-hours, commercial speed, etc.) and the statistics on passenger service (passenger-kilometers, passenger-hours, average trip length, etc.) can be calculated from these datasets for any spatial or temporal level of resolution, including route and bus stop levels. Full text (pdf)

Psychological Determinants of  the Intention to Use the Bus in Ho Chi Minh City

Satoshi Fujii and Hong Tan Van, Tokyo Institute of Technology


This study explores the behavioral intention to use the bus while considering the perceived quality of bus service, problem awareness, and moral obligation of people in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. The purpose is to test the feasibility of developing mobility management measures persuading motorcycle users to use the bus more, and if so, how. Principal components analysis on a set of psychological factors related to various aspects of bus use yielded four factors: moral concerns, negative expression, quality perception, and social status. The regression of the intention on these four factors revealed that determinants of intention to use the bus in HCMC are moral concerns and the perception of quality. Based on the psychological relationships, mobility management measures can be applied in persuading people to change their behavior toward using the bus. Full text (pdf)

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