Impact of Transportation Demand Management (TDM) Elements on Managed Lanes Toll Prices

(Center Identification Number: 79060-00)

Principal Investigator:

Brian Pessaro, Senior Research Associate
National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) at the
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
University of South Florida
4202 E. Fowler Avenue, CUT 100
Tampa, Florida  33620-5375
pessaro@cutr.usf.edu
(813) 974-5113

DSR Contact:

Sharon Pinson
Sponsored Research Administrator
University of South Florida
Sponsored Research
3702 Spectrum Boulevard, Suite 165
Tampa, FL 33612-9445
spinson@usf.edu
(813) 974-0360

Project Manager:

Marjorie Hilaire, E.l.
FDOT Project Manager
Office of Modal Development
Florida Department of Transportation, District 4
3400 West Commercial Blvd.
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309
marjorie.hilaire@dot.state.fl. us
(954) 717-2253

Purpose and Benefit of Research

The purpose of this research is to quantify the extent to which transit and ridesharing reduce traffic density and lower tolls on the l-95 Express Lanes. The tolls on the l-95 Express Lanes are variable and are based on traffic density. Therefore, transportatlon strategies that increase person throughput can contribute to lower tolls. lmproved traffic flow and lower tolls both benefit the travelling public. This research benefits the state because dynamically priced managed lanes feature prominently in the state’s future transportation plans, particularly in South Florida. This research will add to the body of research done already on the l-95 Express Lanes. lt will help the Florida Department of Transportation have a better understanding of the positive role played by transit and ridesharing in relation to dynamically priced managed lanes.

Background Statement

Between 2OO7 and 2008, the U.S. Department of Transportation made awards to six cities through the Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) Program and its companion program the Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD). Miami was one of the six cities. The Mlami UPA involved converting 7.3 miles of high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on lnterstate 95 between downtown Miami and the Golden Glades Interchange into dynamically priced high occupancy toll (HOT) lanes. The tolls on the l-95 Express Lanes are variable and can change every 15 minutes based on traffic density inside the Express Lanes. The toll rates are designed to ensure a minimum travel speed of 45 miles per hour. Toll revenue operations began in phases. Phase 14 began in December 2008 in the northbound direction. Phase 1B began in January 2010 in the southbound direction. Phase 2 is currently under construction and will extend the Express Lanes 1.4 miles north into Broward County. Phase 2 is expected to open in late 2014.

The Miami UPA included several transit and transportation demand management (TDM) enhancements. The HOV requirement was changed from unregistered 2-person carpools (HOV2) to registered 3-person carpools (HOV3) to aid enforcement. The UPA-funded transit improvements to the Express Lanes included adding three more express bus routes to the one route that was already in existence; adding 500 parking spaces to the Golden Glades park and ride lot; and installing transit signal priority (TSP) at 50 intersections on two arterials used by the l-95 express buses. Transit and TDM play an important role in Express Lane operations. Sketch planning done by FDOT District 4 showed that roadway level of service (LOS) in the l-95 general purpose lanes would be degraded were it not for the transit and TDM components in the Express Lanes.

Project Objectives

This project will take the initial sketch planning done by FDOT District 4 a step further. The research objective is to calculate the difference in peak period traffic density, LOS, and toll rates on the l-95 Express Lanes under a hypothetical scenario where there is no transit or TDM component. The calculations will be performed in both the northbound and southbound directions in the a.m. and p.m. peak periods (6:00 to 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 to 7:00 p.m.). The purpose of the research is to demonstrate that transit and TDM are vital components of priced managed lanes and provide a benefit to all commuters. These benefits come in the form of lower traffic densities and lower tolls. The proposed scope of work will consist of the following tasks:

Supporting Tasks and Deliverables

Task 1. Literature Review

This research will start with a literature review pertaining to transit and TDM in the context of dynamically priced managed lanes. The literature review will include, but not be limited to, Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) reports, Transportation Research Board (TRB) papers, and other related papers and reports.

Deliverable 1: Upon completion of Task 1, the university will submit to sandra.bell@dot.state.fl.us a written Literature Review Summary. lt will discuss what research has already been done on the topic of transit in relation to dynamically priced managed lanes.

Task 2. Data Collection

This task will include assembling the necessary data that are needed to compare peak periods tolls rates with and without the transit and TDM components. The data sources may include, but not be limited to:

  • l-95 Express Lanes Performance Summary Reports
  • l-95 Express Lane Monthly Fare Exempt Reports
  • l-95 Express Toll Facility operations Manual
  • l-95 HOV Lane Monitoring Report
  • APC passenger data from Broward County Transit and Miami-Dade Transit
  • Miami Urban Partnership Agreement Phase 1 Transit Report
  • Highway capacity Manual
  • South Florida Commuter Services survey data of registered carpoolers

Task 2 labor will be invoiced along with Task 3 labor after the Task 3 deliverable has been approved.

Task 3. Bus Passenger Survey

ln order to estimate what percentage of today’s l-95 Express Bus riders would drive alone if there were no express bus service, a passenger survey will be conducted. The survey will be conducted on all l-95

Express Bus routes operated by Miami-Dade Transit and Broward County Transit. The survey will be conducted for both the a.m. and p.m. peak periods. The survey will ask riders about their previous mode of travel, their level of automobile ownership, and how they would otherwise make their trip if there were no express bus service. The FDOT Project Manager will approve the final survey.

Deliverable 2: Upon completion of Task 3, the university will submit to sandra.bell@dot.state.fl.us a written summary of the Bus Passenger Survey results.

Task 4. Methodology

CUTR will develop a methodology for comparing the peak period tolls on the l-95 Express Lanes with and without a transit and TDM component. The anticipated methodology will be a macro-analysis that relies in part on the Highway Capacity Manual’s speed-flow curves and the current tolling algorithm. The methodology will require making estimates about the hypothetical travel mode choices of the express bus riders, carpoolers, and vanpoolers in a scenario where there are no toll exemptions and no express bus service. These estimates will be based on existing and new survey data of the express bus riders, carpoolers, and vanpoolers on the l-95 Express Lanes. To help ensure that the methodology is academically sound, CUTR will convene an expert advisory panel to review and provide feedback on the proposed methodology. The advisory panel will be composed of academic and professional experts in the field of managed lanes, tolling, transit, and ridesharing. CUTR will document the proposed methodology in a technical memorandum, which will describe the steps that will be used and the assumptions that will be made when estimating traffic densities and toll rates. Task 4 will include a local stakeholder meeting at FDOT District 4 Headquarters or another location to be determined by the FDOT Project Manager. The purpose of the meeting will be to present the draft methodology to local stakeholders and receive comments prior to finalizing the methodology. Local stakeholders included, but are not limited to, FDOT District 4 and District 6, FDOT SunGuide, Florida’s Turnpike Enterprise, Miami-Dade Transit, Broward County Transit, and South Florida Commuter Services.

Deliverable 3: Upon completion of Task 4, the university will submit to sandra.bell@dot.state.fl.us a written Technical Memorandum that documents the agreed upon methodology for estimating the traffic densities and toll rates on the l-95 Express Lanes without a TDM component.

Task 5. Data Analysis

After all of the required data have been collected and the methodology has been approved by FDOT, CUTR will calculate a comparison of the average speed, volume, density, level of service and toll in the l-95 Express Lanes with and without the transit and TDM component. It will be an hour-by-hour comparison for the a.m. and p.m. peak periods (6:00 to 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 to 7:00 p.m.) in both the northbound and southbound directions.

Task 5 labor will be invoiced along with Task 6 labor after the Task 6 deliverable has been approved.

Task 6. Draft Final and Final Report

Ninety (90) days prior to the end date of the task work order, the university will submit a draft final report to sandra.bell@dot.state.fl.us. The draft final report will calculate the difference in peak period traffic density, LOS, and toll rates on the l-95 Express Lanes under a hypothetical scenario where there is no transit or TDM component. The calculations will be performed in both the northbound and southbound directions in the a.m. and p.m. peak periods (6:00 to 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 to 7:00 p.m.). The draft final and final reports must follow the Guidelines for University Presentation and Publication of

Research available at http://www.dot.state.fl.us/research-center/Program_Information/GuidelinesJuly2013.pdf.

The report must be well-written and edited for technical accuracy, grammar, clarity, organization, and format.

Deliverable 4: Upon Department approval of the draft final report, the university will submit the Final

Report on two (2) CDs. Both CDs shall contain the report in PDF and Word formats. CDs should be labeled in a professional manner and include contract number, task work order number, project title, and date.

The final report is due by the end date of the task work order and should be mailed to the Florida Department of Transportation, Research Center, 605 Suwannee Street, MS 30, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0450.

Use of Subcontractors

No equipment will be purchased for this project.

Use of Graduate Students and Other Research Assistants

Students will be used to assist with conducting the bus passenger surveys and with inputting the raw data into statistical software.

Equipment

No equipment will be purchased for this project.

Expenses

This project will require the design and printing of a bus passenger survey. The approximate cost is 5250.

Travel

This project will include travel. For the bus passenger survey in Task 3, it is anticipated that one week of travel to South Florida will be required (2 travel days + 3 survey days). An estimated seven CUTR staff (mostly students) will be traveling to South Florida to conduct the survey. For Task 4, the principal investigator will travel to FDOT District 4 for one day, including an overnight stay, to lead the stakeholder meeting. The table below outlines the estimated travel expenses.

The maximum amount of travel is limited to 56,042.00. The maximum amount of indirect cost on travel is limited to 5604.20. All travel shall be in accordance with Section 112.061, Florida Statutes. FDOT employees may not travel on research contracts. Travel must only be requested when teleconference and web meetings cannot achieve the purpose of the travel.

Project Oversight and Peer Review

This NCTR project will utilize an expert advisory panel for review of the methodology and Draft Final Report. The advisory panel will be composed of academic and professional experts in the field of managed lanes, tolling, transit, and ridesharing. Faculty from other university transportation centers will be invited to serve on the expert advisory panel. There will be no travel related expenses associated with the activities of the expert advisory panel.

Project Kickoff Teleconference

The Principal Investigator will schedule a kickoff teleconference that shall be held within the first 30 days of execution. The project manager, principal investigator, and research performance coordinator shall attend. Other parties maybe invited if appropriate. The purpose of the meeting is to review the tasks, deliverables, and deployment plan. Teleconference/web meeting should be used.

Project Closeout Teleconference

The principal investigator will schedule a closeout teleconference that shall be held during the final 30 days of the task work order. The principal investigator, project manager, and research performance coordinator shall attend. Other parties may be invited, if appropriate. The purpose of the meeting is to review project performance, the deployment plan, and next steps.

Performance

Work not identified and included in this scope of service is not to be performed and will not be subject to compensation by the Department.

Publication Provision

lf at any time during the project, the University or subcontractor (if applicable) desires to publish in any form any material that has not been submitted for formal review and acceptance by the Department, the University must submit to the Department an abstract and notification of intent to publish materials, and receive the Department’s concurrence to publish. To protect the interest of the Department, such publication must prominently contain the following statement “The Florida Department of Transportation has not reviewed or accepted this material.” Both written and oral releases are considered to be within the context of publication. However, there is no intention to limit discussion of the study with small technical groups or lectures to employees or students. Lectures that describe the plans but disclose neither data nor results may be given to other groups without advance approval.

Project Milestones

The project is tentatively scheduled to begin September 1, 2013, and the scheduled completion approximately 18 months after notice to proceed.

Project Schedule

September 2013 to March 2015

Project Budget

Total Project Cost     $128,091

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