Bus Operator Safety Critical Issues Examination and Model Practices

(Center Identification Number: 77953-00)

Principal Investigators:

Lisa Staes, Program Director
Transit Safety and Workforce Development Programs
National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) at the
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
University of South Florida
4202 E. Fowler Avenue, CUT 100
Tampa, Florida  33620-5375
813-974-9787

Amber Reep, Senior Research Associate
National Center for Transit Research (NCTR) at the
Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
University of South Florida
4202 E. Fowler Avenue, CUT 100
Tampa, Florida  33620-5375
813-974-9823

Project Managers:

Robert Westbrook, Operations Administrator
Office of Public Transportation
Florida Department of Transportation
605 Suwannee Street, MS 26
Tallahassee, Florida 32399
850-414-4533
robert.westbrook@dot.state.fl.us

Victor Wiley, Transit Safety Program Manager
Office of Public Transportation
Florida Department of Transportation
605 Suwannee Street, MS 30
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0450
850-414-4525

Background Statement

Florida’s public transit systems, as well as those across the United States (U.S.), have a critical obligation to ensure the overall safe operation of their systems, as well as the personal safety of transit customers, employees, and the public.  One of the most critical safety elements within a transit agency is safety management.  There are a variety of ways in which safety departments or structures are organized with a transit agency.  This research will begin by identifying the structure of the safety program within transit agencies across the state of Florida.

Central to the success of a transit agency and the corresponding safety management system within the agency are transit bus operators – they are the agencies’ first responders for any incident involving their vehicles, and they are responsible for the safety of their passengers.  A significant threat to the transit safety is the ever-increasing prevalence of assaults, both on bus operators, and on transit passengers.  This threat is even more pervasive when these events and other traumatic events (such as accidents that result in fatalities, as an example) result in the inability of a bus operator to return to his position.  The methods utilized by transit agencies to counter the physical and psychological impacts of these events, including the use of employee assistance programs and other tools, will be studied in this research activity.

In addition, to better ensure the safety of passengers and the public, transit agencies perform record reviews for new bus operator hires, as well as other employees to confirm their eligibility to drive and to ensure that the individuals selected are free from any criminal history that would disqualify them from a position that requires engagement with passengers and the public on an ongoing basis.  The two reviews consistently used within the public transit industry are driver’s license or motor vehicle record (MVRs) and criminal history background checks.  There is dissimilarity in the public transit industry in the policies and procedures established for the review of these records.  While all transit agencies perform these reviews for new bus operator hires, the frequency and level of review, as well as the events that prompt an out of cycle review vary from system to system.

In this study, researchers at the National Center for Transit Research will undertake a multi-topic comprehensive examination of bus operator related safety and security issues.  The impacts of assaults on transit bus operators within Florida’s transit systems, as well as those across the country, will be studied.  The project team will also identify the practices currently utilized by transit agencies in performing record checks, identify any commonalities related to type of records pulled, frequency, and/or events that would initiate an out of cycle record review, and provide any model policies or practices.  Finally, the project team will gather agency training curricula, schedules, and strategies and determine the success of these training programs in reducing (or alleviating) the occurrence of these safety and security issues.

The goals of this research effort are to:

  1. Identify and discuss the organizational reporting structure related to safety departments and/or function within each of the 30 fixed route public transit agencies in Florida;
  2. Identify and document model policies and practices that address the post event condition of bus operators and their ability to return to duty;
  3. Summarize the current practices related to driver’s licenses and criminal history background checks and identify model policies or procedures related to these record checks;
  4. Examine the training opportunities being provided by transit agencies and report the successes of these training programs on reducing the safety and security issues related to distracted driving and assaults; and

Provide recommendations on how transit agencies can improve their training processes to be more effective in dealing with both the safety and security related issues discussed in this research.

Research Topic Areas

The proposed scope of services for this project consists of a series of Research Topic Areas (RTAs) and associated tasks.  The RTAs for this project include the following:

RTA #1 – Safety Function:  Organizational Structure and Reporting

RTA #2 – Bus Operator Assaults and Other Traumatic Events:  Return to Duty Model Practices

RTA #3 – Model Policies and Procedures for Driver’s License and Criminal History Background Checks

RTA #4 – Safety Training for Bus Operators – Improving the Training Process and Model Programs

Each RTA discussion will include the research topic statement of understanding, the research process, anticipated outcomes, and deliverables.  Those elements common to each RTA, including the literature review and project survey, are described in the following section.

Literature Review

A literature review will be conducted to provide a solid and necessary foundation for each RTA.  The literature review will provide a comprehensive overview of transit bus operator safety, including those bus operator practices that distract them from providing safe and effective transit services, as well as the threat of assaults on bus operators that come from those riding the system and the general public.  It will include the review of literature identified through a search of the Transit Research International Database (TRID), as well as Google or other internet search tools that address the complexity and relevance of these topics.

The literature review will also include the identification and collection of safety-related procedures, policies, regulations, and rules established by Florida’s public transit agencies, as well as those across the U.S.  This literature review will include an examination of formal publications and newspaper and online news articles; guidelines and recommended practices developed by industry groups, including the Amalgamated Transit Union and Transportation Workers United labor organizations, and the American Public Transportation Association (APTA); and, other research reporting sources.  At a minimum, the documents that will be reviewed include, but are not limited to:

  • TCRP Synthesis 93 – Practices to Protect Bus Operators from Passenger Assault, TRB 2011
  • TCRP Synthesis 80 – Transit Security Update, TRB 2009
  • “Is Enough Being Done to Stop the Assault on Bus Operators?” – Metro Magazine, Volume 105, Issue Number 7
  • Cops, Cameras, and Enclosures:  A Synthesis Of the Effectiveness of Methods to Provide Enhanced Security for Bus Operators, National Center for Transit Research, 2001
  • Publications and other documents issued by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles
  • Publications and other documents issued by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement
  • Other relevant publications as identified
  • Recommended Practice for Bus Operator Training, APTA
  • TRB Special Report 275 – The Workforce Challenge – Recruiting, Training and Retaining Qualified Workers for Transportation and Transit Agencies, TRB 2003

The literature review will identify representative work that addresses the prevalence or increasing incidences of driver distractions and threats to transit bus operators. The results of the literature review will be one of the drivers of the research process and will reveal model policies and practices that will be reflected in each of the tasks below and each of the project deliverables.  The results of the literature review will be organized by RTA and will be incorporated into a corresponding deliverable.

Project Survey and Communication with Public Transit Systems

A comprehensive project online electronic survey will be conducted.  The survey instrument will be disseminated to all Florida’s public transit systems, as well as to small, mid-sized and large transit agencies across the U.S.  This survey will be followed by telephonic interviews with a minimum of 12 Florida transit systems and up to 10 transit agencies from other states.  The research team will make a concerted effort to reach each transit agency in Florida that is a recipient of FTA Section 5307 and Florida Public Transit Block Grant program funding.

The electronic survey questionnaire will be used to collect information from transit agencies on the frequency, severity, and impact of assaults and harassment events on these systems.  There will also be questions related to MVR and driver’s license record reviews.  The survey will contain questions related to the following:

  • Organizational Mission Statements and Culture
  • New and Existing Policies
  • Participation of Employees and Organized Labor in Policy Development
  • Potential Changes to Policies
  • Emergent/Model Practices, Policies and Designs
  • Agency assault policies, procedures and rules
  • Physical assaults
  • Verbal assaults
  • Other types of assaults
  • External results of assault cases
  • Internal results of assault cases
  • Post event assistance to employees
  • Employee Assistance Programs
  • Return to duty evaluations

The survey will be followed by a series of telephonic and in-person case study Interviews.  This may include obtaining access to and interviewing transit bus operators from properties around the state and nation.  The results of this survey will be presented in each of the RTA technical memoranda within which the survey topics have relevance.

Research Topic Area #1 – Transit Agency Safety Office Organization and Reporting Structure

Safety is an essential part of transit management and oversight.  The location of the safety oversight within the transit agency organization can help to ensure the clear formulation of safety related organizational and operational plans, policies and procedures. Transit agencies throughout Florida have different types of organizational reporting structures, depending on the size and nature of the agency.  While certain organizational structures are developed based on function, others are developed based on efficiency, effectiveness and/or necessity.  The purpose of this task is to identify and discuss the organizational reporting structure related to safety departments and/or function in each of the 30 fixed route public transit agencies in Florida.  At a minimum, the researchers will:

  1. Identify each agency’s organanizational and reporting structure
  2. Describe how the safety oversight function is located within  the agency’s organization
  3. Collect and report the role of the safety related function at each agency
  4. Identify key staff positions assigned safety oversight responsibilities

 

Task 1:  Identify and Research Organizational Reporting Structure

There are a number of organizational reporting structures that can exist within a transit agency.  These variations can be a result of decisions by upper management, but can also manifest themselves as a result of the organization’s overall makeup.  Examples of this can include, but not be limited to an agency being managed privately or publicly.

The purpose of this task is to research and report the organizational reporting structure of Florida’s public transit agencies related to their safety related functions.  At a minimum, the researchers will contact each of the 30 fixed route agencies in Florida to identify:

  • Organizational reporting structures
  • Organizational Reporting Structure and Mechanisms
  • Key Personnel/Staff

Task 2:  Reporting Structures

CUTR will use the information collected in Task 1, to analyze and chronicle organizational reporting structures, and will document any innovative organizational reporting and/or structures. Additionally, CUTR will compare Florida’s transit agency’s organizational structures to other safety focused industries including, but not limited the rail industry.  Based on research, CUTR will provide recommended organizational model practices.

Task 3:  Florida Transit Safety Network Summit

Utilizing contact information collected in Tasks 1 and 2, CUTR will coordinate a statewide summit for Florida’s transit safety managers and/or personnel.  This summit, held in cooperation with FDOT Office of Freight Logistics and Passenger Operations will bring together transit professionals who are committed to public transit safety.  The summit is envisioned to be the kick-start of a statewide discussion on safety and is designed to:

  • Define key transit safety issues and impacts
  • Promote new interdisciplinary collaboration between Florida’s transit safety personnel
  • Develop steps of action for continuing coordinated effort to improve safety
  • Improve means for data collection and sharing
  • Establish roles and responsibilities for continuing a statewide transit safety network

DELIVERABLE

RTA #1 Technical Memorandum – Transit Safety Departments’ Organizational Structure

The technical memorandum generated from RTA #1 and associated tasks will be used to identify and discuss the organizational reporting structure related to safety departments and/or function in each of the 30 fixed route public transit agencies in Florida.  In addition, it will document the Florida Transit Safety Network Summit. This deliverable will be submitted within 30 days of the completion of RTA #1 and all associated tasks.

Research Topic Area #2 – Bus Operator Assaults and Other Traumatic Events:  Return to Duty Model Practices

The news media is rife with stories about assaults on transit bus drivers, with many of these articles reporting increases in the number of events at transit agencies across the country.  Headlines such as:  “Bus Driver Safety on Public Transit Draws More Attention After Attack on SEPTA Bus Driver,” “Metro bus drivers concerned about their safety,” “Rise in transit worker assaults prompts summit seeking solutions,” “Transit violence signals need for more security,” and “Atlanta bus driver attacks on the rise,” suggests this is a national trend.

While assaults on bus operators can be the source of significant emotional distress and may, in limited cases, prevent them from being able to assume their duties, there are other occurrences, such as accidents that result in severe injuries or fatalities, which also contribute to emotional trauma.

The objective for this RTA is to undertake a comprehensive examination of return to duty procedures agencies have implemented for their operators who have experienced assaults or other traumatic events.  The tasks include identifying the how Florida’s transit agencies, as well as those across the country, assist bus operators after these events to resume their duties or, if they are unable to return to duty, the opportunities they may provide for continued employment at the agency or other benefits; and providing a summary of industry model practices.

While there is fairly extensive literature devoted to training bus operators, or otherwise preparing them for violent engagements with passengers or others, driver safety, and defensive driving, there is little literature available that describes the methods applied after an event to assist bus operators who have been assaulted or have experience other traumatic events, and help them successfully return to their jobs.   This topic will receive considerable focus and discussion in the tasks identified above and described in the following section.

Task 4 – Observed Trends in Bus Operator and Transit System Rider Assaults and other Traumatic Events

This task will include a status report on the state of the industry and current conditions under which the nation’s public transportation systems are operating; and the type, severity, and prevalence of assaults on these systems.  The project team will also review the time of day assaults are most prevalent; type of services on which they occur most frequently (i.e., paratransit, fixed-route, commuter/express routes); and location (i.e., urban or suburban commercial, residential, rural areas, etc.).

The report will also address the average amount of time it takes for affected employees to return to duty.  The researchers will also attempt to quantify the number of bus operators who do not return to their jobs either as a personal choice or because they have been rendered unable to return to work due to their injuries.

Task 5 – Case Studies in Florida and other States The research team will conduct a series of case studies of transit agencies both within the state of Florida and across the country.  The case studies will identify the occurrence of assaults on bus operators or their passengers, the provision of assistance to bus operators after an event, and preparing them for re-entry to their positions.  At a minimum, 15 systems will be contacted including the following:

Five Florida Systems:

  • Miami-Dade Transit Agency
  • Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority
  • LYNX
  • Jacksonville Transportation Authority
  • VOTRAN

Ten systems outside Florida will include, but not be limited to:

SEPTA, Philadelphia, PA

WMATA, Washington, DC

Bridgeport Transit Authority, CT

MARTA, Atlanta, GA

TriMet, Portland, OR

Pierce Transit, Tacoma, WA

Connecticut Transit,

Task 6 – Industry Summary and Model Practices

The industry summary and model practices discussion will be centered on those practices that are considered that reflect “Post Event” activities and “Return to Duty.”  The research process is included below.

  • Post Event and Return to Duty Policies and Practices 
    • Summarize information gathered in the survey tool, as well as the case study interviews.
    • Review collective bargaining agreements
    • Identify any progressive measures transit systems are utilizing to return drivers to their positions (i.e., changes in route assignments, work hours, transitional assignments such as “desk assignments,” employee assistance programs, counseling, return to duty psychological evaluations, etc.)
    • Identify benefits provided by transit agencies to those bus operators who are unable to return to work due to physical disability caused by their assailant (i.e., Death and Felonious Assault Insurance, such as that offered by TriMet).
    • Use of Workmen’s Compensation
    • Use of Disability Insurance/Extended Leave Arrangements
    • Identify industry model practices

 

DELIVERABLE

RTA #2 Technical Memorandum – Bus Operator Return to Duty Model Practices

The technical memorandum generated from RTA #2 and associated tasks will be used to identify model practices to aid public agencies in assisting their bus operators in coping with these events (both physical and psychological impacts), and identify return to duty policies and practices.

This deliverable will be submitted within 30 days of the completion of RTA #2 and all associated tasks.

Research Topic Area #3 – Model Policies and Procedures for Driver’s License and Criminal History Background Checks

Transit agencies utilize a variety of procedures and policies related to the type of license and background checks they perform for their drivers, the frequency of the record review, and the conditions under which out of cycle record reviews are conducted.  All transit systems perform some level of driver’s license record and criminal history background checks for new employees.  However, there is great variation in the type of records pulled and the review frequency following the hiring of a bus operator.  The objectives of this RTA are to identify the practices currently utilized by transit agencies in performing these record checks, identify any commonalities related to type of records pulled, frequency, and/or events that would initiate an out of cycle record review, and provide any model policies or practices across the country and within Florida, which may include any cost reduction strategies used to offset the cost of accessing these records.

A Florida driving record or motor vehicle record (MVR) can be obtained from the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles or through a variety of private companies.  The MVRs available include a 3-year, 7-year, and complete driving record.  Both the 3- and 7-year records list only those infractions that have been adjudicated by the courts.  These records do not include any actions for which adjudication was withheld, such as those for which the driver attended traffic school.  The complete driving record contains all traffic infractions occurring within the past 11 years and will include infractions that occurred within the state of Florida, as well as those within other states. This record does include infractions for which adjudication was withheld.  The fees for these records vary according to the type of record pulled and the number of records that will be accessed.  Vendors that provide this information may provide discounts for “commercial accounts” – those created for agencies that are ordering records on an ongoing basis.

According to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), criminal history record checks are used to determine if an individual has been arrested and/or convicted of a crime.  Information may be pulled from three different databases including, the Florida Computerized Criminal History (CCH) Central Repository for Florida arrests; the Florida Computerized Criminal History Central Repository for Florida arrests combined with the national criminal history database from the Federal Bureau of Investigation for federal arrests and arrests that took place in other states; and the Florida Crime Information Center which provides current warrants and domestic violence injunctions (also called a “Hot Files Check”).  The national database is based on fingerprinting, while the state database includes entries for individuals by name or fingerprint.

In Florida, the terms “Level 1” and “Level 2” background checks are used to identify the method used to pull the data and the degree to which the data is searched and are defined in Chapter 435, Florida Statutes (F.S.).  According to FDLE, Level 1 refers to a Florida only name-based record check and an employment history check.  Level 2 refers to a state and national fingerprint-based check and generally applies to employees designated by law as holding positions of responsibility or trust.  This level of check is mandated for all employees who are required to be fingerprinted in accordance with Chapter 435, F.S.   The cost associated with the state only or Level 1 check is approximately $24.00.  A Level 2 check, which includes both the state and national database search, is approximately $40.50 ($24.00 for state data and $16.50 for national data).

 Task 7 –Synthesis of Practices

The level of record review and frequency of those reviews by transit agencies can have and does have considerable budget implications.  For this task, a synthesis of practices will be developed that looks at the following:

  • Level of record review and frequency by transit agencies across the country and in Florida;
  • Review required for new drivers;
  • Frequency of record review after a bus operator has been hired;
  • Overall agency practices and policies, including self-reporting requirements when violations have occurred;
  • Situations under which an agency would be prompted to initiate an out of cycle MVR or criminal background check; and
  • Identification of common or model practices and policies.

DELIVERABLE

RTA #3 Technical Memorandum – Model Policies and Procedures for Driver’s License and Criminal History Background Checks

The technical memorandum generated from RTA #3 and associated tasks will:

  1. Provide a summary of current practices among the surveyed agencies in the areas studied;
  2. Provide a discussion of best practices revealed through research tasks; and
  3. Provide recommendations for transit agencies regarding driver’s license and background checks.

This deliverable will be submitted within 30 days of the completion of RTA #3 and all associated tasks.

Research Topic Area #4 – Safety Training for Bus Operators

Training of public transit operators is critically important to the safe operation of transit systems.  While many training programs exist throughout the country, there are few that would be considered standardized.  Additionally, many of these programs are longstanding and have not been updated to include new educational theories, concepts and delivery mechanisms.   In general, the industry’s approach to public transit operator training includes offering training at the beginning of employment and, thereafter, it is only delivered intermittently (refresher training and remedial training).  This research will examine today’s public transit operator training models and identify possible contributing factors or correlations between the existing training models and safety related accidents.  This examination will be conducted consistent with the tasks below.

Task 8:  Improving the Training Process

The completion of this task will include the review of training processes utilized throughout the transit industry and will include recommendations on how to improve the training process.

  • Rethinking How We Train
  • Utilizing Technologies and Other Emergent Training Delivery Methods

 

Task 9:  Identify Model Programs

  • Identify Innovative and Successful Training Models
  • Provide Recommendations for Change
  • Compare Model Training Programs
  • Identify Outside Industry Model Training Programs

 

RTA #4 Technical Memorandum – Safety Training for Bus Operators – Improving the Training Process and Model Programs

The technical memorandum generated from RTA #3 and associated tasks will identify and describe various public transit operator training models within Florida, as well as across the U.S.  In addition, the researchers will identify any possible contributing factors or correlations between these existing training models and safety related accidents or improved safety conditions This deliverable will be submitted within 30 days of the completion of RTA #4 and all associated tasks.

NCTR Research Project Management

Project Management Activities

The budget assigned to project management activities will include sufficient faculty, student, and staff hours to participate in the following:

  • Project oversight and peer review activities;
  • Project kick-off meeting;
  • Ongoing budget monitoring;
  • Development and submittal of quarterly progress reports;
  • Coordination with FDOT Research Office and Project Manager;
  • Coordination with Project Advisory Committee;
  • Response to FDOT comments on deliverables; and
  • Quality assurance.

Project Oversight and Peer Review

This NCTR project will utilize subject matter experts to serve as a Project Advisory Committee.  The committee will include members of the Florida Operations Network, and the FDOT project manager, Grant Programs Administrator, and the Transit Safety Programs Manager, at a minimum.  The Committee will confirm the relevance of the research, review project deliverables and final report, and provide overall guidance and input to the CUTR project team.   The Project Advisory Committee will be consulted through telephonic meetings, FON listserv activities, and through regularly scheduled, quarterly FON meetings.  There will be no travel related expenses associated with the activities of the Project Advisory Committee.

Project Kickoff Meeting

A kick-off meeting shall be scheduled to occur within the first 30 days of the execution of the work order by the university.  The preferred method for the kick-off meeting is via teleconference or video conference.  At a minimum, the project manager, principal investigator, and Research Office representative will attend.  Due to the comprehensive nature of this scope of services and the incorporation of multiple Research Topic Areas, additional FDOT and CUTR project team representation may be required.  CUTR will coordinate this meeting with the FDOT project manager and the RTA lead staff.   Other parties may be invited, as appropriate.  The subject of the meeting will be to review and discuss the project’s tasks, schedule, milestones, deliverables, reporting requirements, and deployment plan.  A summary of the kick-off meeting shall be included in the first progress report.

Quarterly Progress Reports and Billings

Progress reports will be prepared and submitted based on a calendar quarter and will be sent to Sandra Bell at sandra.bell@dot.state.fl.us for processing.  CUTR’s first progress report will describe all activities that occurred in the quarter following the issuance of the task work order.  Reports will be submitted within 30 days of the end of the reporting period.

Each quarterly report will include the following information:

1. FDOT Contract Number, Work Order Number and Project Title

2. Work performed during the quarter

3. Work to be performed next quarter

4. Anticipated modifications (i.e., to funding, schedule, or scope)

5. A progress schedule updated to reflect activities for the period being reported

CUTR researchers understand that failure to submit progress reports in a timely manner may result in termination of the work order.

Project billings will be deliverable based.  Billings will correspond to the completion and FDOT project manager approval of each deliverable.

Draft Final Report

The final task of the research will be to provide practitioners and other transportation professionals a resource document that will detail those critical bus operator safety issues characterized as bus operator distractions and assaults to bus operators prevalent within Florida’s public transportation systems, as well as systems across the United States.  It will include the identification and examination of these issues; and will provide corresponding model practices identified through the research effort.

This document will be developed in an easy-to-read, user-friendly format and will be Section 508 compliant.  CUTR will ensure that the report is well-written and of a quality consistent with the excellence expected by the Research Office.  It will be edited for technical accuracy, grammar, clarity, organization, and format, and will be prepared in accordance with the “Guidelines for Preparing Draft Final and Final Reports” posted at http://www.dot.state.fl.us/research-center/Project_Mgt_Resources.shtm.

Upon completion of the draft and a formal internal editing process, the Draft Final Report will be submitted to Sandra Bell at FDOT’s Research Office 90 days prior to the end date of the task work order for this research project.

Final Report

Once the draft final report has been approved, CUTR will prepare the final report. CUTR will deliver a minimum of eight (8) CD or DVD copies, seven (7) of which will contain the final report in PDF format and one (1) will contain the final report in PDF format and MS Word format and will also include a Summary of the Final Report.  The CDs or DVDs will be labeled in a professional manner and include at a minimum the FDOT contract number, task work order number, project title and final report date.

The final report will be completed and provided to Department no later than the end date of the task work order.  CUTR will deliver the final report to the following address:

The Florida Department of Transportation

Research Center, MS 30

605 Suwannee Street

Tallahassee, FL 32399-0450

This deliverable is represented in Task 9 identified in the project schedule.  Final billing on this project will occur upon the delivery and subsequent FDOT approval of the final report

Project Closeout Meeting

A closeout meeting will be conducted 30 days prior to end of the task work order to review project performance, the deployment plan, and next steps.  Attendees shall include, as a minimum, the project manager, the principal investigator, and the Research Center performance coordinator.

Use of Graduate Students

Graduate Research Assistants will not be used on this project.  OPS students will be utilized to perform a number of the tasks described within this scope of services, including, but not limited to the literature review, survey result analyses, and other data collection required by each RTA.

Equipment

There will be no equipment acquisition required to conduct this study.

Travel

There will be no travel associated with this project.  NCTR research project contract funds will not be utilized to support travel for FDOT employees.

Project Schedule

October 2012 to February 2014

Project Budget

Total Project Cost     $242,005

 

 

 

Leave a Reply

Please complete the simple math problem prior to submitting your comment. This reduces spam. Thanks! * Time limit is exhausted. Please reload CAPTCHA.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.