Public Transportation Synthesis Series: TDM in Europe – a Synthesis of Research Findings

(Center Identification Number: 473-13 part 3) 

This report contains information on TDM strategies in the EU, specifically, but not limited to, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Belgium. In addition, Europe’s attitude toward TDM, as a journey rather than a destination significantly differs from the attitude about TDM in the United States. This synthesis reports on the major TDM approaches to terminating and curtailing traffic in Europe, such as parking measures (i.e., high prices for premium parking spaces and the elimination of parking spaces and auto access in certain areas to make car travel less attractive); road pricing (i.e., charging varying tolls according to time of day and also charging high enough tolls to influence driving behavior); and alteration of infrastructure (i.e., changing existing infrastructure to benefit nonmotorized travel). Download the final report and bibliography.  For more information, contact Phil Winters at

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