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NCTR is located at the Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida. CUTR is recognized as one of the country's Best Workplaces for CommutersSM      

Abstracts from the

Journal of Public Transportation

Volume 8, No. 5, 2005

Social Marketing Applications and Transportation Demand Management: An Information Instrument for the 21st Century

Enda McGovern, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley


Concern has been expressed by planners and policy-makers that the “add capacity” strategy used in building more roads to resolve traffic-induced problems is no longer a feasible option. This article explores private transport behavior in understanding how users can be persuaded to adopt a more blended approach (i.e., integrating car, public transportation, and alternative modes on a daily basis). The research methodology adopted focus groups and travel diaries in presenting a number of social marketing message appeals aimed at inducing a change in participants’ travel behaviors. While weaknesses are identified in the social marketing materials, this research concludes that social marketing as a stand-alone intervention program is not capable of persuading people to alter their overdependency on car use. Nonetheless, participants did acknowledge that the messages were informative and helpful in educating them on transportation issues. The research suggests that social marketing programs could be of value as information instruments in support of transportation demand management (TDM) policies. Such programs can function as an effective channel of communication in building dialog and garnering wider public support of demand management policy and in delivering important transportation messages directly to commuters.  Full text (pdf)

The Role of UK Local Authorities in Promoting the Bus

Michelle Morris, Stephen Ison, and Marcus Enoch, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK


To deal with rising city center congestion and its associated pollution, the UK government has proposed a number of policy measures. In particular, the 1998 White Paper indicated that “the bus industry will make an important and cost-effective contribution to tackling congestion and pollution at the local level.” Since the privatization of the bus industry during the 1980s, local government—the primary agents of delivering transport policy objectives in the UK—have had relatively little control over the provision of bus services in their localities, particularly outside London. One area in which local authorities can exert influence, however, is through the promotion of buses among the general public. So far though, little evidence exists to reveal the extent to which local authorities in the UK have actively promoted city bus services as part of an integrated solution to reducing traffic-related congestion in urban areas. This paper seeks to redress this issue. The empirical evidence gained in this study suggests that only a few UK local authorities have actively promoted city bus services and that there are problems in establishing cohesive promotional objectives, budget setting, measurement activity, understanding of the promotional mix, and the benefits derived from promoting city bus services. Full text (pdf)

Public Transport Reforms in Seoul: Innovations Motivated by Funding Crisis

John Pucher, Hyungyong Park, and Mook Han Kim, Rutgers University
Jumin Song, University of Michigan


On July 1, 2004, the Seoul Metropolitan Government introduced a wide range of reforms to its public transport system: it completely reorganized bus services, installed Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) corridors, improved coordination of bus and metro services, and fully integrated the fare structure and ticketing system between routes as well as modes. This article describes the public transport reforms in Seoul and assesses their impacts on safety, speed, costs, passenger levels, and overall customer satisfaction. Full text (pdf)

A Regression Model of the Number of Taxicabs in U.S. Cities

Bruce Schaller, Schaller Consulting


In cities that control the number of taxicabs by law or regulation, setting the number of cabs is one of the most important decisions made by taxicab regulators and elected officials. Licensing either too many or too few cabs can have serious deleterious effects on the availability and quality of service and the economic viability of the taxi business. Yet local officials often have difficulty quantifying the demand for taxi service or tracking changes in demand.
Multiple regression modeling of the number of cabs in 118 U.S. cities identifies three primary demand factors: the number of workers commuting by subway, the number of households with no vehicles available, and the number of airport taxi trips. These results can be used to identify peer cities for further comparison and analysis and to guide regulators in measuring changes in local demand for cab service.   Full text (pdf)

Parking Policy for Transit-Oriented Development: Lessons for Cities, Transit Agencies, and Developers

Richard Willson, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona


Parking policy is an important element of transit-oriented development (TOD). It shapes travel behavior, community design, and development economics; it can improve the performance of both rail transit and TOD. This article is based on the study of residential TODs, office TODs, and joint development of transit agency station parking in California. The research includes surveys of travel behavior, station-area characteristics, parking supply, interviews with real estate developers, and studies of replacement parking issues at joint development sites. Research results show that TOD parking supply and pricing policy seldom are structured to support transit ridership goals. Policy recommendations for improving parking policy for TODs are offered to transit agencies, cities, and developers.  Full text (pdf)

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