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Parking Management Resources

Parking Management Made Easy: A Guide to Taming the Downtown Parking Beast 

This Parking Guide "outlines a step-by-step process to identify problems, undertake a parking study, analyze the results, and determine the strategies to resolve the problem, including options for making better use of the existing parking supply."

This guide tells you: How to analyze your downtown parking to see if you have a parking problem. How to analyze what, where, and when the problem(s) occur. How you can add to your parking supply through better management of the total space that you currently have (not always the individual number of spaces).

Prepared for the Transportation and Growth Management Program by the Oregon Downtown Development Association, June, 2001. (12 page booklet)

Carpool Preferential Parking at Universities (HTML).  Also available as a pdf file.  Includes tables describing eligibility, designation, enforcement and administration of carpool preferential parking at numerous universities.

Parking Cash Out (PDF - 241KB) (updated in 2007)
This briefing paper discusses the tax and other benefits of parking cash-out programs and helps employers identify when they make sense. It also includes an implementation guide and case studies.

Sample Preferential Parking Rules and Regulations
The following sites link to policies and procedures for carpool and vanpool parking for employees, most include sample forms or agreements.

Enforcement Approaches (Responses to posting on Campus Parking Listserv):

  • Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia

"Under our Rideshare Scheme we sell 'Rideshare Permits' to individuals at half the price of a normal permit. Rideshare Scheme participants then have to display 2 permits to park, whether in the area reserved for Ridesharers or in the general area. This system seems free of abuse. It is possible, of course, for non-ridesharers to work the system to get access to the preferential parking spaces - but there is no evidence that anyone has cottoned on to this idea yet and there is no financial benefit to be gained. We do not require members of a car pool to register - they simply purchase the Rideshare Permit over the counter like an ordinary permit - so it is easy to administer. The system is simple and, as far as we can discover, foolproof. The function of our Rideshare Office is simply to maintain a data base of persons wishing to rideshare and enable them to find others travelling from the same district at about the same time. 

Brian Goodhind, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia

  • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

    "At UW-Milwaukee we issue one transferrable hangtag parking permit to the carpool. There is nothing that distinguishes this permit as a carpool permit. It is the same type hangtag transferrable staff permit we would issue to non-carpooling staff. However, we have lines on our permit/vehicle registration card where each member of a carpool can sign their name and provide their own vehicle ID information on the same registration card identifying that they are part of a carpool. Those that have completed the permit/vehicle registration card with other names listed as carpoolers then receive 9, 12, or 15 free self-validating one day parking permits for the year depending on whether the list of carpoolers represents a 2, 3, or 4 or more person carpool. The permits can be used for campus parking by any member of the carpool as needed. This seems to be more than adequate. It has worked quite well. I know the customers are happy. We do not yet offer an emergency ride home to carpoolers. The local transit system offers emergency rides home to staff who participate in our subsidized monthly employee bus pass program and we ourselves offer emergency rides back to any of our three satellite lots (3 miles off campus) should the need arise and they can't wait for the shuttle service. So far in the past year I think we gave only one emergency ride."

        Jim Marsho, University of Wisconsin -Milwaukee

  • Penn State University

    "We issue one permit to the "pool". Other members may purchase one day permits if they need to handle personal business or whatever keeps them out of the pool for a specific day or days during a month. However, we are going to try to stimulate car pool formation beginning this fall. We will still issue one permit to the "pool" and members will need to handle the logistics of who has it. However, we will be instituting a guaranteed ride home program and also will be issuing a set number of one day permits (at no charge) per month or per semester. Exactly how many freebies to issue has not yet been established. My guess is one per month per car pool member, but that is truly a guess. 

    Doug Holmes, Penn State

Managing Employee Parking in a Changing Market 
King County Metro developed this handbook for use by employers who provide parking for their employees.

Parking Management and Supply Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes - Transit Cooperative Research Program Report 95 Chapter 18. Transportation Research Board. 2003

Charging for Parking in Suburban Areas: Case Studies of Worksites in King County, Wash

Summary: An increasing number of suburban employers are implementing employee parking fees. The fees are motivated by a variety of factors, including trip reduction ordinances, parking shortages and changes in worksite location. However, very little data exists that would help a suburban employer start such a parking pricing program. To assist employers in successfully implementing an employee parking fee, Metro's Market Development section conducted a study of suburban employers in King County, Washington that currently charge employees for parking. 

The objectives of this study were: 

  • To develop a source of information to assist suburban employers in implementing an employee parking fee. 

  • To dispel misconceptions held by suburban employers regarding employee parking fees. 

  • To outline effective strategies for implementing an employee parking fee.

  • To document the experiences of suburban employers that currently have an employee parking fee, with one goal being to update this information in the future. 

A total of seven employers participated in this study. Interviews were conducted from September, 1994 through December, 1994. Each employer's parking fee had been in place at least nine months; therefore, the full impact of the parking fees could be assessed. The following are the major findings from this study: 

  • The range of parking fees is $5.00/month to $50.00/month, including surface, above ground and below ground parking.

  • Implementing a parking fee can ease parking shortages. 

  • Only one of the three unionized employers faced strong union opposition to the parking fee. 

  • In only one case studied did employees have a strong negative reaction to the parking fee. In three cases there was no reaction at all. 

  • Five of the seven employers in this study have met their 1995 Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) goal which mandates a reduction of their SOV rate by 15% below the 1993 SOV rate for the surrounding area. 

This report analyzes several issues that affect the success of a suburban employer's employee parking fee, makes recommendations for other employers considering an employee parking fee, and presents seven case studies of suburban employers that currently have an employee parking fee.

Parking Cash-Out Incentive: Eight Case Studies (abstract)
Emissions from cars used by a single occupant for commuting to work are the single largest contributor to poor air quality in many urban areas of the state. Removing some of the incentives to drive alone could help improve air quality. A 1992 California law created a program known as "parking cash-out" that eliminates subsidization of parking for solo drivers. In the present study, parking cash-out programs used by eight firms were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in encouraging the employees to switch from solo driving to using carpools, public transit, or other air-quality-friendly transportation modes. This study was performed by the University of California, Los Angeles for the California Air Resources Board.

With the cash-out programs implemented, the average share of solo commute drivers decreased from 76 percent to 63 percent, a 17 percent decrease. The reduction in solo driving among the eight firms ranged from 4 to 29 percent. Carpooling increased from 14 to 23 percent; transit ridership increased from six to nine percent, and walking and bicycling increased from 2.3 to 3.4 percent. This shift in mode of travel led to fewer vehicle trips and VMT, which were reduced by an average of 11 and 12 percent, respectively, both with a range of five to 24 percent. The reduction in vehicle trips and VMT resulted in a reduction of vehicle emissions of 12 percent, with a range of 5 to 24 percent for the eight firms.



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