Fundamentals About A Guaranteed Ride Home Program
What is a Guaranteed Ride Home program?
A GRH program is a free or subsidized ride provided to commuters who use
alternative commute modes to accommodate their occasional unexpected trips (such
as on emergency errands or an unexpected need to work late, removing the concern
of being stranded at work without an automobile).
- Is offered by a sponsor such as an employer or a third party such as a
rideshare service, a TMA, a transit company or an MPO.
- The sponsor may pay for taxi rides, contracted car rentals, transit passes or
offer company vehicles for participating employees.
Why is a GRH program important?
- Improves commuters' security and flexibility to respond to emergencies without
relying on their car. GRH makes alternative modes more feasible especially to
non-drivers and low-income employees because they avoid unexpected emergency
expenses while using alternative commute options that save them money.
- It is an effective low cost program. In 1993, COMSIS estimated that GRH
typically averages less than $5 per employee per year (1993 dollars) since less
than 10% of eligible employees uses GRH. The Warner Center TMA in Los Angeles
found that about 1% of the 6,000 eligible rideshare patrons used the service
(Park, 1991) and a nationwide survey of eleven GRH programs by KT Analytics
found that their average use is about 13 rides per 100 eligible employees per
- Increases employee satisfaction, commitment and retention. A GRH program shows
that the employer cares about their well-being and is willing to provide support
- Helps achieve TDM objectives by using alternative modes. In a 1992 K.T.
Analytics survey, 59% of rideshare and transit patrons considered GRH important
in their decision to use alternative modes, and in the 1998 Hunt & McMillan
survey, availability of GRH has a value roughly equivalent to subsidized transit
fares at a fraction of the cost. In Bellevue, it was found that bus trips
increased by 12%, carpool dropped by 2% and vanpool increased by 64% with some
notation that most increases came from solo drivers switching.
How can a GRH program be implemented?
- By an employer or a third party such as a rideshare service, a TMA, a transit
company or an MPO using:
- Taxi rides reimbursed by the program sponsor.
- Company vehicles of employer.
- Car rentals contracted by employers.
- Transit passes offered by the program sponsor.
- By implementing concrete policy specifications
- Who is eligible? The program could cover all employees, or only those who use
alternative modes for a specified portion of commuting.
- What trips are eligible? The program could cover any trip, or it could be
limited to unexpected business appointments or overtime, earlier departure of
carpool/vanpool, employee or family member sickness, and other personal
emergencies (victim of crime, home fire, plumbing leak etc).
- Maximum number of uses allowed. Is it during a certain period, maximum miles
within a period, or maximum cost per trip?
- Which staff or department is responsible for implementation? Is it the human
resources, parking, security, finance, etc?
- What are the procedures for using the GRH service? See "typical
implementation steps" below.
- Pay attention to precautionary measures.
- Involve stakeholders such as employees, taxi companies, car-share
organizations or other contractors in the planning process.
- Tie it closely to your commute options, i.e., design of a GRH program features
should be derived from the type of commute options to be implemented.
- Consider co-payments, i.e., GRH may be free or it may require a modest
co-payment from the service user.
- Limit restrictions, i.e., to allow commuters to participate in unplanned non
emergency events that can still affect their decision whether or not to drive
(it is most effective if requirements are not restricted to
"emergency" trips alone).
- Anticipate cost variations i.e., Commuter Transportation Services in Los
Angeles suggests an estimation between 0.5 and 20 percent of current rideshare
patrons ranging from companies allowing rides for overtime, errands or business
trips, to companies allowing emergency use only respectively.
What are the typical implementation steps?
- Identify and decide on the commute options the company would offer.
These include transit, rideshare, bike, walk, skateboard, etc.
- Ensure top-level support of the commute options.
- Tailor the GRH program plans to the commute options selected.
- Develop program description based on selected commute options.
- Itemize benefits to the employer and related opportunities.
- Itemize costs to the employer and related challenges.
- Determine the feasibility of offering a GRH program.
- Estimate the average cost at $5 for 20% of current rideshare patrons per year.
- Identify potential providers and assess their
- Assess employee commute needs and support to use the program.
- Ensure top-level support of the GRH program.
- Develop program policies and procedures (better anticipate than react).
- Involve stakeholders throughout the process.
- Specify eligibility such as type of commute, times of commute, employee status
etc (also see form at http://www.nctr.usf.edu/clearinghouse/formgrh.htm).
- Determine whether employees will use vouchers or be reimbursed and the
approval procedures (balance convenience versus abuse).
- Develop appropriate paperwork, e.g. registration forms, ID cards and
reimbursement vouchers in triplicate (copies for administrator, employee and
- Allocate resources
- Assign an Employee Transportation Coordinator (ETC) who will administer the
program and liaison with outside providers, jurisdictions and other related
- Make appropriate arrangements with taxis, rental car companies, local transit
agency and other relevant service providers.
- Manage the Program
- Continually promote the program to potential users of alternative modes as a
safety net for participants (information of availability versus encouraging to
- Ensure that the service is fast, reliable and convenient.
- Keep records and regularly analyze patterns especially about frequent uses
that may address a larger personnel issue (childcare, unplanned overtime,
- Monitor the program against abuse by employees or service providers.
- Keep stakeholders informed especially management and service providers.
What are some of the GRH challenges?
- Possible high costs. For taxis, company car or rentals especially for programs
serving commuters working late or overtime. However, experience indicates that
employer costs are usually low, especially for programs offering emergency
service during the workday only, and it is a very cost effective way to reduce
automobile commuting. In general, taxis are cost effective for short trips while
auto rentals are preferable for longer trips.
- Liability exposure. In case of accidents and late arrivals to appointments but
this need to be specified in policies and sign up forms. In many states, worker
compensation laws only recognize where an employee is carrying out employment
What are some of the examples?
- Transit Agencies
- Tri-Met, Portland, OR: The transit agency offers a system wide GRH program for
participating companies. In the early days when GRH at Tri-met was limited to
participants in special shuttle programs such as the Rivergate shuttle,
Milwaukie Shuttle and similar others, Tri-Met developed a supplementary program
called Emergency Ride Home (ERH) program to cover other commuters. Tri-Met
negotiated with a taxi company to offer 8% off the regular cost for all other
commuters not using the special shuttle program with fares paid by the employer
or employee. Eventually, the program was consolidated into an ERH to cover all
alternative mode users in participating companies.
- Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA: Has a GRH at 17 sites in LA and relies on
vouchers with security personnel responsible for arranging transportation.
- Avista, Spokane, WA: Has a Fleet Services Department with cars for employee
use to meetings. The same vehicles are used for GRH for a qualifying employee to
drive home and return it the next day. Taxis are called only if no cars are
- Hughes Aircraft Back-Up Vanpool Program, Tucson, Arizona: Provides an
emergency van only for vanpoolers during the day and after work. For after work
service, employees must call the Hughes rideshare office before 4 p.m.
- Xerox Company Fleet Car Program, Palo Alto, California: Rideshare patrons may
use company cars in emergencies. Use is limited to two hours, though cars can be
brought home and returned the next day.
- Transportation Organizations
- Ride-On, the TMA for San Luis Obispo County in Central California: Offers
door-to-door GRH service anywhere in the area on weekdays between 8 am and 7 pm.
In the event of an emergency, authorized staff calls Ride-On to request a
Guaranteed Ride Home. The TMA will send a vehicle within 15 minutes. http://www.rideshare.org/
- Golden Gate Bridge District Flex-Pool Program, San Francisco, California:
Provides vanpool services for all commuters using District transit, vanpools,
carpools or club buses in downtown San Francisco. Vans are owned by the District
and driven by volunteer commuters in exchange for unlimited use of the van.
Reservations must be made by 3:30 p.m.
- Public Jurisdictions
- City of Albuquerque GRH Program in New Mexico: It is the Transit Department's
insurance offering for those in the Bernalillo County area that regularly use
alternate modes of transportation at least three times a week (those who buy a
monthly bus pass are automatically registered). This service can be used up to
five times a year for true emergencies such as personal illness, family illness,
unscheduled overtime or any other emergency that requires you to leave work or
- Montgomery County Government Subsidized Taxi Program, Montgomery County,
Maryland: Provides county employees who use transit and carpool with
reimbursement for taxi or transit use in emergencies.
- Denver Regional Council of Governments, Denver, Colorado: Has about 16,500
registered car-poolers who rideshare at least twice per week are eligible for
two free taxi rides for emergencies over a 6-month test period.
- City of Bellevue Subsidized Taxi Service, Bellevue, Washington: Carpool,
vanpool and transit patrons are eligible for the program. Applicants are given
taxi vouchers good for limited mileage for one year. Users must pay for the cab
themselves, then send in the voucher to the regional transit agency (Metro) and
request reimbursement. Metro refunds the taxi fare less a $1.00 co-payment.
- Useful Resources
Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida,
Christopher Park, Evaluation of Second Year Effectiveness of Guaranteed Ride
home at Warner Center TMO, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 1992.
Cosette Polena and Lawrence Jesse Glazer, "Examination of 11 Guaranteed
Ride Home Programs Nationwide," Transportation Research Record 1321, 1991,
Eileen Kadesh and Laurie Elder, "Guaranteed Ride Home: An Insurance Program
for HOV Users," Transportation Research Record No. 1212, Transportation
Research Board, 1989.
K.T. Analytics, TDM Status Report; Guaranteed Ride Home, Federal Transit
Administration, USDOT www.fta.dot.gov/library/planning/tdmstatus/FTAGUAR2.HTM
Victoria Transit Policy Institute, Guaranteed Ride Home program, http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm18.htm